Video instructions and help with filling out and completing Will Form 5495 Ethics

Instructions and Help about Will Form 5495 Ethics

So in this video I want to review how Plato's allegory the cave is connected to his divided line into the theory of forms and his philosophy of Education metaphysics epistemology and so on okay and remember though there is no substitute for actually reading plato's books he wrote approximately 36 books so in Plato's Republic that's his masterpiece Socrates paints one of the most powerful images in the history of philosophy and this is the allegory of the cave which can be reduced to four stages in the first stage imagine that cave prisoners are chained and looking at a cave wall they don't know they are chained they don't know that they're prisoners they see in here shadows in the cave wall and they believe them to be real and these prisoners represent the majority of humankind so I'm going to pull up a PowerPoint and these are a couple of images we have from Google for Plato's cave you can see they're now in the second stage imagine a prisoner who is compelled to break free Plato uses this word compelled so the prisoner is freed from the chains and turns around to see a platform upon which people are carrying objects in front of a fire in these objects cast shadows in the cave wall the prisoner now realizes that the familiar world since birth right the familiar world of shadows in the cave wall is actually an illusion created by people in the background carrying the objects in front of the fire so the shadows on the wall the prisoner now realizes they're less real than the objects in the background casting the shadows right so we're moving from appearance to reality even though all his life or her life he thought the shadows were real he's just now discovering they're not okay here's the third stage imagine the prisoner sees sunlight entering the cave and follows the rugged path to exit the cave or perhaps he's forced to exit the cave whatever the case the prisoner is initially blinded by the sunlight outside of the cave but his Tsun Tsun his eyes adjusts kind of like walking out of a movie theater when it's you know from dark to light at first he sees the reflections of trees on the surface of a lake again this is an appearance but soon he sees the trees and other objects themselves the actual trees the prisoner can even get glimpses of the Sun itself right and this is a higher reality than that inside the cave and notice the prisoner would have never discovered it unless he had questioned the shadows in the cave wall that is unless he had thought critically he would never discovered all this now the fourth stage could be where he or she apprehends the former the good the Sun itself where it could be where the prisoner feels compelled to return to the cave and help those still imprisoned now upon returning the prisoner stumbles around because his eyes are adjusting to the darkness he's used to the sunlit world now the prisoner then tells others of the higher reality but he's mocked because after all the prisoners only only know the shadow reality and some may even seek to kill him as they did Socrates so it's interesting to think about what your interpretation of this allegory is and there's no wrong answer there's there's many interesting interpretations but I'll try focusing on what Plato meant by this for Plato the world inside the cave let me pull up this picture the world below this line is inside the cave and for him that represents the physical visible or empirical changing world when people engage in the Socratic method or they just think well critically they leave the physical realm and discover the non-physical invisible intelligible essence of essences of things the forms above the line outside the cave ok so let's use a triangle example to get a clearer picture of this here on the bottom left you see a image of a triangle it's just an imitation of an actual triangular surface of an object so the picture is an image and the triangular surface is a physical object so here we are dealing with physical objects that change that come into being and die out however if after studying and thinking about triangles you discover the essence of triangles you move up here then you've left the cave right now the essence is the universal definition for example the essence of a triangle is that it has three sides that encloses an area of space which creates three angles that equal 180 degrees that is the universal the essence the definition of triangles because it's what all triangles have in common and what all non triangles don't have so now we have a concept we moved from conjecture belief to concept and well from image object to concept conjecture belief in understanding I could say and even if there were no physical triangles we could understand this concept and then finally we get to the form which is the highest stage the form of triangle and this is when we actually see that the concept or universal exists apart from our minds that is the concept of triangle does not depend on my mind it's not mine dependent it's an objective reality about triangles it's like a law that actually exists like a logos so Plato seems to believe that the form triangle exists in a sort of heavenly non-physical non-spatial eternal realm and I'll come back to that point in just a minute but notice the four stages correspond to the four stages of the line so as you move outside of the cave you're moving up the line and I drew the line on the right over here and you can say there's actually a fifth stage where you encounter the form of