Video instructions and help with filling out and completing Why Form 5495 Underlying

Instructions and Help about Why Form 5495 Underlying

Hi welcome to introduction to linguistics today we are going to learn how to solve phonology problems before we do that let's review some key concepts what is a phoneme the phoneme is a contrastive segment minimal contrastive units of sounds phonemes are abstract mental entities native speakers subconsciously understand that this sound serve to distinguish the meaning of words in their language from one another so for example when you have the sound of the tea in time you know that that sound is different from the sound of the dime so we can say that although they have the same environment look at here I'm I'm these two sounds are different so they are two different phonemes now remember phonemes contrast what is an elephant an elephant is a distinct variant of a phoneme it's the actual phonetic segment produced by a speaker for examples when we have the phoneme T we don't pronounce that T always the same way you have the aspirated T like top this one is not aspirated stop this one would be a flap little this one will be a glottal stop kitten and this one would be a syllabic hunter for some speakers so these are all variants of the same phoneme the T okay so when you think about elephants you remember they're non contrastive we are going to see how to identify phonemes in a language how do we do that well phonemes make distinctions in meaning if two sounds are members of separate phonemes minimal pairs can almost always be found remember we discussed minimal pairs let's see one example of minimal pairs a good example is time and time this is a minimal pair why because you have the same exact environment I'm I'm and the only difference is one sound in the meaning will be different too now the elephant's of a phoneme are not a random collection of sounds but are a set of sounds that have the same psychological function what does it mean well they are not random the variance of that phoneme they have rules by analyzing the environment you will be able to come up with rules so again by analyzing the patterns of sounds or the environment that are physically present it is possible to draw conclusions or come up with rules about the psychological organization of a language the rules which is not directly observable so let's see how do we do well let's begin comparing the sounds earth in earth which is almost silent okay so this symbol here shows that you quite not pronounce that Earth much well I know some speakers would say oh I don't see much difference but there is depending on the environment so we are going to ask ourselves well we have these two sounds are these sounds elephant's of separate phonemes or allophones of the same phony okay so this is going to be our problem right to figure out if these two sounds belong to different phonemes or to the same phony how do we do that how do we solve this problem first of all I wanted to know that I will provide the words and also the transcription so you're going to receive the problem with something like this okay and the first thing you need to do is to look for minimal pairs because remember if they if you find minimal pairs and the meaning is different that means that those two sounds belong to two different phonemes okay after you look for minimal pairs you're going to compare the phonetic environments now what are the phonetic environments well the sounds around that specific sound that you are analyzing in our case the chief sounds of our and also keep in mind that you need to ask yourselves are there any natural classes here you have the words the transcription so now I'm going to separate my sounds first I'm going to analyze all the words that have this sound here which is the earth that you can really hear okay so let's see I look at my transcription here and I find oh I found one word this one so I transfer that transcription inside brackets and I skip the R sound I put a slash here in the R sound okay like this let's see we have another word yes par par is another one now look I don't even need to write all the sounds I just want to see the environment whatever is near that sound so I put the a here and guess what this symbol here shows that after my are there is nothing here there is no other sound so I have the a the a sound I have my slash which is my R sound but after it I don't have anything so to show that I don't have any other sound here it's at the end of a word I'm going to put this symbol here all right do I have another one yes I have broker okay so I put my B I skip the earth sound and I just go up to here just bro-bro is enough I don't need to analyze the rest of the world okay any other one no not this one well I have this one regain so it begins with the are so that means that before my earth sound there is nothing what do I do I put this symbol here then I put my slash and I put my is sound because it's regain okay regain I don't need to transcribe or I don't need to put the rest of the transcription now okay I think that is enough we have one more but for some reason I don't have here but that's fine it would be if I had to transfer that I would write just the a and then I would put my slash and that symbol