Video instructions and help with filling out and completing Who Form 5495 Underlying

Instructions and Help about Who Form 5495 Underlying

Welcome this is a video for the phonology module of linguistics 101 in the phonetics module we looked at broad and narrow transcriptions at that point it was presented as the transcription before and after the application of the phonetic processes in this video we will look at a more fundamental perspective on the difference between broad and narrow transcriptions and lay the foundations for powerful method of analyzing sound patterns in the language so to start let's consider the pronunciation you might find in a dictionary for example the word between is transcribed like this in the Oxford English Dictionary there are a couple of things in there that we didn't cover yet the stress mark that high tick and the length mark which is the double dots the colon link character don't worry about those for now but do notice that there's no aspiration marked on the T although that is an aspirated T between and no nasalization marked on the eval the lowercase I in other words this is a broad transcription and you can see that because it actually uses the slash brackets that was copied directly from the Oxford English Dictionary it's a broad transcription so it leaves out the details Illustrated given by phonetic processes such as aspiration and nasalization a dictionary even one with the gravitas of the Oxford English Dictionary can afford to leave out these details because every speaker of English if they are given the information in the broad transcription will automatically fill in those details they will apply the phonetic processes this is part of the unconscious working of the phonological grammar it's automatic so what does this tell us about the broad and narrow transcriptions and how they relate to the production and perception of language well it suggests that the broad transcription captures a sort of internal representation the pronunciation sitting in the mind of the speaker waiting to be articulated or contrarily the in the mind of the list after they've taken in the physical pronunciation and process to debate as it says mental representation and the narrow transcription of course captures the external behavior it's a description of the physical phonetic things that are being produced and transmitted how the word is actually spoken now this insight has all sorts of consequences we're going to move through them carefully first it's clear that the only thing we can directly observe is the narrow transcription the thing the narrow transcription represents anyway the physical pronunciation we can't read minds so we can't directly observe the mental representation that's behind that pronunciation what we can do as scientists is pay attention to the patterns and make inferences so for example let's consider the words cat and cab we observe that these pronunciations are identical except for the final sound in cat and in cab we can also observe that people's behavior is different relative to these words one is used in conjunction with felines and one is used with hired automobiles in other words the pronunciation difference is connected with the difference in meaning cool so it's reasonable to further suggest that this pronunciation difference signals the difference in meaning language is used to signal or convey meaning so that difference signals that difference right okay so we know that an important part of meaning is internal the intention that we learned about back in the semantics module so if an internal meaning difference is connected to an external pronunciation difference it would be reasonable to infer that the internal pronunciation the broad transcription residing in the language users head is also different between the words cat and cab right I mean just conceptually you have this internal representation the point of it is to guide how you produce things so if one guides you in this direction one guides you in that direction their different pronunciations right okay so what all this adds up to is an inference that the and the sounds in cat and cab must correspond to two different categories in the internal representation of pronunciations now we need to unclutter our language of it at this point instead of referring to narrow and broad transcriptions which are really just the linguist representation of what's going on and instead of talking about internal and external pronunciations and that kind of thing which is just clunky we'll get a couple of new terms so first we can use the term Ala phone to refer to those physical units of articulation that we can observe like the narrow transcription tip and but second we're going to use the term phoneme to refer to those abstract units that make up the mental representation of a pronunciation so the things that are indicated by the broad transcription so in the example we've been using our final inference would be that the allophones and belong to separate phonemes now here's a place where it can be easy to to let the notation mislead you so I want you to pay attention we use square brackets for narrow transcription that's the sequence of elephants the physical thing that's being observed the thing to remember is that the phoneme T we use the same symbol but between different brackets it's not only a different thing from the a LaFonte it's a fundamentally different kind of thing The Aleph on T has all the phonetic properties we discussed before it's voiceless it's a stock its alveolar it has now the other place of articulation right the phoneme T it's just an abstract category in the mind of the speaker or the listener we use the same symbol both because it's convenient and because it is connected to the physical T sound but the connection is a connection isn't that the phoneme has those properties the connection is that the phoneme causes those properties to come into existence right that abstract category in the speaker's mind gets transformed into something that