Video instructions and help with filling out and completing Where Form 5495 Underlying

Instructions and Help about Where Form 5495 Underlying

Phonemes and allophones these are terms we use to make sense of the way sounds work in a language take just two sounds N and M to test if speakers hear these two sounds is to phonemes we see if we can find words we're switching one sound for the other gives us a completely different word here's the word meat switching the M to an n gives us the word meat this is a minimal pair the two words differ minimally by one sound only but what's the point of this well by holding all the other variables constant we can see if switching the sounds in question changes the meaning of the word is switching one sound for another changes the meaning it follows that we're looking at two different words and if there are two different words English speakers treat the two sounds in question as different sounds in this example and an M are contrasted and this contrast tells us that M and M are two distinct phonemes in English a phoneme can have different pronunciations take this out K it comes out with a puff of air in the word kite but not in the word sky these two sounds and are different but we hear them as variants of the same sound we call these and allophones of the phoneme k the same goes for M and M in the word input I've heard that word pronounced both input and input making mmm and mmm variants of the same sound allophones of the phoneme M the sounds and show up in different places after s we hear only sky scans skirt but at the beginning of a word we hear can keep cool these allophones show up in different environments where we find one we won't find the other and vice versa that kind of mutually exclusive relationship is called complementary distribution other allophones sounds can show up in the same environment go back to the word input input varies with input in a tomato tomahto sort of way these two allophones of the phoneme n are in free variation with one this last example shows you that one sound like mmm might show up best allophones of multiple phonemes mmm is how people usually pronounce the phoneme em but it's also how some people pronounce the phoneme n in the word input in the next lesson I'll build on the concepts of phoneme and alle phone and begin working through the pronunciation system of a foreign language as we do that I'll help you uncover all the basics of phonology you