Video instructions and help with filling out and completing Where Form 5495 Opinions

Instructions and Help about Where Form 5495 Opinions

I have often been puzzled by two related questions why do people so rarely change their minds on important matters and why nevertheless do people think that they are reasonable and think that those who disagree with them are not reasonable now another way of phrasing the question is how and why do people think they know things now what does it mean to know and in everyday language we there are really two conditions for using the word know one is the absence of doubt and the other is that the proposition in which you believe must be true we can't say that he knows something that's wrong but in fact subjectively the only thing that matters is the absence of doubt and there is no subjective difference between true and false beliefs and there are many false beliefs so we think we know many things that in fact are not the case and this is generally true and it's if you think about that we are to some extent perverted by where I our idea that we know think through science but in fact there are many different ways of knowing things and people who are deeply religious and not particularly scientific they know things and there is no psychological difference between the way they know things and the way that we consumers of science know things the reason I believe in global warming and in in the fact that the earth is round well have seen pictures of the earth being round but but the reason I believe in most of the thing that I believe is that I've been told that by people I trust and exactly the same is true for religious people who believe in things that scientists do not believe in and they believe them because they have been told those things by people they trust and they know those things to be true there is more than one way of knowing and we had better used to the fact that it's a psychological problem how we get to think that we know things and in a book I published a couple of years ago that I alluded to I presented a view of the mind in terms of to system system 1 and system 2 sort of two fictitious characters they don't really exist in the brain or systems but fast the fast system is automatic and it really runs our mental life most of the time the slow system requires attention and effort and it is involved typically when things get difficult the fast system continuously produces and maintains a representation of the world around us we see things with system one or with fast thinking system to the slow thinking comes into play when system one is in trouble that is when we encounter a difficulty when the question arises we reason about things with system two and believing as it turns out is mostly like seeing and not like reasoning and here comes a truly important psychological fact I think we don't know how our mind works we tend to think that our mind works that we have beliefs because we have reasons for these reliefs but in fact this is not the way that beliefs come about this is not that's the way that subjective knowledge comes about subjective knowledge is to be explained by how our beliefs produced without doubt now the two systems go with two ways in which ideas can be coherent so reasoning comes with logical coherence so it that's the type of coherence that's associated with operations of reasoning so if you believe that if a is true then B must be true and if you believe that a is true then you also believe that B is true that's the kind of thing that the kind of logical coherence but system one and actually our mind really works with a different notion of coherence which is associated and emotional coherence and where ideas are coherent not because one follows from the other logically but because they fit and you know there are many examples of ideas that fit but here is an idea that doesn't fit the idea that Adam Hitler really liked children and dogs and he was extremely nice to children and there is you know this and we feel real discomfort when we hear that because it doesn't fit we want that evil man to be evil in everywhere it's not so much that we want it's something gets very uncomfortable in the processing because we get a picture that we haven't managed to make coherent and then there is a famous experiment by Paul Rosen in which you show people a glass of orange juice a perfectly normal glass of orange juice and you give them a sticker and you ask them to write the word cyanide on the sticker and to stick the sticker on the orange juice and then we invite them to drink the orange juice and they don't want to and that is because of fit they know perfectly well that the orange juice is not dangerous they just don't feel like doing it this is the kind of associative coherence that I talked about so system one creates the world we see and mostly what we see is meaningful and well-structured and the way that it achieves the coherence that our world normally has is in part by a property of that system it it's by suppressing ambiguity when there are ambiguous stimuli are presented and many many examples of that we tend to perceive one interpretation and not to perceive another in the book and I gave the example that I can't think of another example now the standard example is she approached the bank that most of you have heard in a particular way you've thought of the bank as a financial institution with tellers and money and so on