Video instructions and help with filling out and completing When Form 5495 Underlying

Instructions and Help about When Form 5495 Underlying

In this video I'm going to show you a few more for analogical phenomena and I'm going to show you the rules used to describe the processes we're not gonna go through step-by-step like with the Korean problem video but I will talk enough about each problem that you can probably go through the steps on your own if you needed to so I'm gonna do three problems in English and one problem in German the reason I'm focusing on English so early is because we're going to use these English examples to look at other theories later so covering some English examples that maybe are more close to home for people is probably just a better idea okay the first one is called English pre glottal ization and this is a process where word final voiceless stops are pre Claude alized so for instance we don't say map we usually say something like map and there is some pre globalization at the end like Kat Blaque you can hear it's not quite the full sound that we're used to let's say in the word like mapping it'd be more like map map map there's kind of a quick closure at the end there so how do we formulate this process well it's a process that targets word-final voiceless stops so in other words at the end of the sound it should be the end of the word so environment basically says at the end of the word we're also targeting voiceless stops so I could say something like - delayed release to get the stops - continuing just to really narrow down that these are obtruding about and then - voices say to their voiceless and I'm saying they're pre flawed alized so if you remember what is the feature that we use for glottal stops it's something to do with our glottis is it spread or constricted well it's constricted so what's happening is that these voiceless stops are getting the plus C G feature or plus constricted glottis feature when they are at the end of a word so we could say - caPSURE English pre globalization we could say these - continuing - Tilly release - voice are getting the plus constricted glottis feature at the end of the word and this captures English free globalization so that's one phenomenon a another phenomena in some dialects of English I have it myself in some words but it's not very common it's called post nasal T deletion and essentially what we say is - is deleted between N and a Stressless vowel so what is a Stressless vowel i want to compare something like the word mental with mentality in fact these transcriptions definitely aren't the same as how i pronounce it but two things to point out really quick the first thing is that this little tick means that that syllable has primary stress so the word mental men is the primarily stressed syllable so mental and mentality we have the stress on towel so mentality and not mentality it's mentality the second thing I need to point out is that this sound here which I didn't write entirely perfectly is called a flap so that is the sound in butter in the middle it's not a duh or a toe it's just butter it is a flap same in the word ladder or writer okay so with those two preliminaries out of the way let's look at how some people say the word mental some people say mental and this is a scientist they will say scientists and even though this may say mental or scientists they would still say something like a mentality or scientific there's no deletion there and that's because in mental and scientist if I were to put syllable boundaries in these words sigh nest what we see is that after the N there's a new syllable but there's no stress on that syllable in fact in the word scientist there isn't even a new syllable there but a Stressless vowel is actually more specific what we're talking about here so the vowel here does not have primary stress there is no stress in the vowel nest in scienced so because there's no stress we have T deletion but in mentality well after the in here we have a stressed vowel so T is not deleted after scientific again there is no Stressless vowel there is a stressed vowel so deletion does not occur okay so the rule that we can say here is a deletion rule so we can say that 2 becomes a nothing in other words 2 deletes when there's an N before it and afterwards there is a syllabic sound so these are vowels and there's no stress so I haven't introduced this plus or minus stress feature but stress is a little bit above the layers of these individual sound features and is part of an entire word or syllable so it's a larger structure so stress think of stress as being a feature that belongs to syllables or maybe even words so that's what this - stresses ok so that process describes post-nasal T deletion and once again this isn't something that every native English speaker has this is just something that is widely captured in some dialects of English okay so here's a very common process and you'll see this in Turkish German Russian and that is kind of a constraint in a way but we'll formalize it as a rule and as a rule that states that you can only have voiceless consonants word-final you cannot have voiced consonants word-final so for instance in the word bath we hear it as but but with baths we would hear baby or Veda for train you would hear something like sook but for trains you'd say Tsuga and the question is well how do we know that this isn't just the base form and