Video instructions and help with filling out and completing How Form 5495 Underlying

Instructions and Help about How Form 5495 Underlying

In this video I'm going to do a complete phonology problem starting from a data set and then searching for allophones phonemes searching for the environments where the allophones may occur if there are any and then making a formal rule for that for logical process and I'm going to do this step-by-step systematically so that way you can see someone work on a real problem and also take those steps and apply it to other problems on your own there is a pretty systematic way to do things so we're going to take a look at Korean s and Shh so in other words we can call this the Korean sibilant problem and here is the data now this might not be 100% accurate for Korean native speakers there may be some slight alterations here this is to simplify the data set to make it easier to work with and this is pretty standard practice in phonology because in reality data sets can be very messy and if we had these really messy data sets there would be no way to start and learn so the first thing we do when we compare two sounds and usually we're told which sounds we're looking at when we have these data sets and we're looking at cinch we're looking for minimal pairs with these sounds so we can look at we can say are there any minimal pairs with cinch I see a minimal pair for and and hmm but we're not working with that so that's not going to help us too much in fact I'm sure you've taken a look right now and you'll notice that there are no minimal pairs for cinch so when there's no minimal pairs we have to resort to a more monotonous task and that is writing out environment charts so an environment chart essentially pinpoints a sound and writes down one sound to the left of it and one sound to the right of it in all circumstances so for instance let's do first the alveolar fricative and we'll go word by word so in the first word we see Sonne so the s o n and in this environment it starts at the beginning of a word so we can do the pound symbol on the left for the word boundary and then immediately after it is the O so this would be one environment for us in the word she'll sue we see an L before the s and then an O afterwards in ISA we see an e before it and after and we'll just continue going through this word by word so she no there's none she humph is done she some we have the put and an AH after in Psalm we have s at the beginning of the word and in Oh after but we already have that environment listed at once so we want we can just put another check by it to say okay this Peet's again in so so we see the same thing in Sol it's at the beginning of the word but there's an AA after it in machida there's nothing in sec the beginning of the word and an is after and then if there's nothing so now we have all the environments for let's work on Shh so she'll sue is at the beginning of the word and there's an e after means she know she hop and sheep some it's all the same story so we see that three more times in mashita I see an a before and an e after and then an O shape I see a note before and an e after so what are the environments fact the first thing we have to ask is are these allophones and in order to determine if they're allophones we have to make sure that there's no similar environments between the two sounds so for instance if I say okay maybe this is something to do with being word initial it can't be because there's word initial environments for both sounds in fact it can't be between word initial and vowel because again we have a word initial followed by a vowel in both circumstances so we need a tighter environment so the I think the very clear environment if we take a look at specifically is that it occurs before E and if we take a look at the alveolar fricative there is no circumstance where it occurs before the sound e so we can say that there's no overlapping environments would be before E and would be everywhere else okay so there's kind of one important thing that I should discuss before we really drill down with the phonemes and allophones for this and that is in order for allophones to be connected to the same phoneme the sounds should be relatively similar so for instance if I was comparing something like and cook these are unlikely to be allophones even if there aren't any overlapping environments simply because the properties of the sounds are so different now with inch what's really the difference between these well it's just anterior it's just the anterior feature is forward is more backwards so with that caveat aside let's discuss this in terms of phonemes and allophones so we have our allophones at this point we know one is and one is and what's the environment well I said that is just before the sound e in fact we saw that by listing all the environments and is more general it is everywhere else so which is the phoneme well the phoneme is the more general sound is the sound that occurs in the most places and that would be now you might be saying why well we're about to form a rule for this and I have a question would you rather make a rule that takes the alveolar to a lvl palatal sound or would