Video instructions and help with filling out and completing How Form 5495 Archives

Instructions and Help about How Form 5495 Archives

Andrew johnson december 29th 1808 to july 31st 1875 was the 17th president of the united states serving from 1865 to 1869 Johnson assumed the presidency as he was vice president of the United States at the time of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln a Democrat who ran with Lincoln on the National Union ticket Johnson came to office as the Civil War concluded the new president favored quick restoration of the seceded states to the Union his plans did not give protection to the former slaves and he came into conflict with the republican-dominated Congress culminating in his impeachment by the House of Representatives he was acquitted in the Senate by one vote Johnson was born in poverty in Raleigh North Carolina and never attended school apprenticed as a tailor he worked in several frontier towns before settling in Greenville Tennessee he served as alderman and mayor there before being elected to the Tennessee House of Representatives in 1835 after brief service in the Tennessee Senate Johnson was elected to the federal House of Representatives in 1843 where he served five two-year terms he became governor of Tennessee for four years and was elected by the legislature to the US Senate in 1857 in his congressional service he sought passage of the homestead bill which was enacted soon after he left his Senate seat in 1862 as southern slave states including Tennessee seceded to form the Confederate States of America Johnson remained firmly with the Union he was the only sitting senator from a Confederate state who did not resign his seat upon learning of his state secession in 1862 Lincoln appointed him as military governor of Tennessee after most of it had been retaken in 1864 Johnson as a ward Democrat and southern unionist was a logical choice as running mate for Lincoln who wished to send a message of national unity in his reelection campaign their ticket easily won when Johnson was sworn in as vice president in March 1865 he gave a rambling speech after which he secluded himself to avoid public ridicule six weeks later the assassination of Lincoln made him president Johnson implemented his own form of presidential reconstruction a series of proclamations directing the seceded States to hold conventions and elections to reform their civil governments when southern states returned many of their old leaders and past Black Codes to deprive the freedmen of many civil liberties congressional Republicans refused to seat legislators from those states and advanced legislation to overrule the southern actions Johnson vetoed their bills and congressional Republicans overrode him setting a pattern for the remainder of his presidency Johnson opposed the 14th amendment which gave citizenship to former slaves in 1866 Johnson went on an unprecedented national tour promoting his executive policies seeking to destroy his Republican opponents as the conflict between the branches of government grew Congress passed the tenure of office act restricting Johnson's ability to fire cabinet officials when he persisted in trying to dismiss Secretary of War Edwin Stanton he was impeached by the House of Representatives and narrowly avoided conviction in the Senate and removal from office after failing to win the 1868 Democratic presidential nomination Johnson left office in 1869 returning to Tennessee after his presidency Johnson sought political vindication and gained it in his eyes when he was elected to the Senate again in 1875 making Johnson the only former president to serve in the Senate he died months into his term while some admired Johnson's strict constitutionalism his strong opposition to federally guaranteed rights for African Americans is widely criticized he is regarded by many historians as one of the worst presidents in American history early life and career topic childhood Andrew Johnson was born in Raleigh North Carolina on December 29th 1808 to Jacob Johnson 1778 to 1812 and Mary Polly McDonough 1783 to 1856 a laundress he was of English scots-irish and Irish ancestry he had a brother William four years his senior and an older sister Elizabeth who died in childhood Johnson's birth in a two-room Shack was a political asset in the mid 19th century and he would frequently remind voters of his humble origins Jacob Johnson was a poor man as had been his father William Johnson but he became town constable of Raleigh before marrying and starting a family both Jacob and Mary were illiterate and had worked as tavern servants while Johnson never attended school Johnson grew up in poverty Jacob died of an apparent heart attack while ringing the town Bell shortly after rescuing three drowning men when his son Andrew was three Polly Johnson worked as a washer woman and became the sole support of her family her occupation was then looked down on as it often took her into other homes unaccompanied there were even rumors that Andrew who did not resemble his brother or sister had been fathered by another man Polly Johnson eventually remarried to Turner doe tree who was as poor as she was Johnson's mother apprenticed her son William to a tailor James Selby Andrew also became an apprentice in Selby's shop at age 10 and was legally bound to serve until his 21st birthday Johnson lived with his mother for part of his service and one of Selby's employees taught him rudimentary literacy skills his education was augmented by citizens who had come to Selby's shop to read to the Taylors as they worked even before he became an apprentice Johnson came to listen the readings caused a lifelong love of learning and one of his biographers Annette gordon-reed suggests that Johnson later a gifted public speaker learned the art as he threaded needles and cut cloth Johnson was not happy at James Selby's and after about five years both he and his brother ran away Selby responded by placing a reward for their return $10 reward ran away from the subscriber to apprentice boys legally bound named William and Andrew Johnson 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